Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of . "Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry". Abstract. In the last decades, a lot of attention has been paid to the compounds present in medicinal Cannabis sativa L., such as. Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of.
Sativa L. » Cannabis
It has been used as a psychoactive drug, as a folk medicine ingredient, and as a source of textile fibre since ancient times [ 2 ]. The taxonomic classification of this plant has always been difficult, due to its genetic variability [ 1 , 3 ].
Firstly, the genus Cannabis has been divided into three main species [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]: Due the easy crossbreeding of these species to generate hybrids, a monotypic classification has been preferred, in which one species C. On the basis of their cannabinoid profiles, five chemotypes have been recognised: For both medicinal and forensic purposes, the most important classification of Cannabis types is that into the drug-type and the fibre-type: Fibre-type Cannabis also known as hemp or industrial hemp is at the moment underemployed for pharmacological purposes, while drug-type C.
However, there has also been a growing interest in fibre-type C. Many European countries have recognized the commercial value of hemp and a legal limit of 0. Cannabinoids are meroterpenoids specifically C 21 or C 22 terpenophenolic compounds , obtained from the alkylation of an alkyl resorcinol with a monoterpene unit [ 3 ]. They are mainly synthesized in glandular trichomes, which are more abundant in female inflorescences [ 2 ].
More than cannabinoids have been isolated, characterised, and divided into 11 chemical classes [ 4 , 6 ]. It should be pointed out that cannabinoids are biosynthesized in the acid form in plant tissues; then, they can generate their decarboxylated counterparts under the action of heat and light, by means of a spontaneous decarboxylation [ 1 , 3 , 4 , 7 — 10 ].
CB 2 receptors are also considered to be involved in neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, and bone remodelling [ 3 ]. In the ambit of nonpsychoactive compounds, CBD represents the most valuable one from the pharmaceutical point of view, since it has been found to possess a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, together with antibiotic, neuroprotective, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties [ 1 , 3 , 11 — 14 ].
CBDA has antimicrobial and antinausea properties [ 1 , 11 , 13 ], while CBG has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic activities [ 1 , 11 , 13 , 15 ]. Thanks to its lack of psychoactivity, CBD is one of the most interesting compounds, with many reported pharmacological effects in various models of pathologies, from inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, to epilepsy, autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis, arthritis, schizophrenia, and cancer [ 16 ].
CBD has also been found to be a negative allosteric modulator of the CB 1 receptors and an inverse agonist of CB 2 receptors, the second activity partly explaining its anti-inflammatory activity [ 16 ]. Concerning other phenolics present in C. Cannabis flavonoids exert several biological effects, including properties possessed also by cannabinoids and terpenes [ 2 ].
Anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer activities have been described for these compounds [ 2 ]. In particular, cannflavin A and B are known to possess an anti-inflammatory action [ 2 ].
An antimicrobial and antileishmanial activity has also been demonstrated for cannflavin B [ 17 ]. Cannflavin A has shown a good antileishmanial activity and a moderate antioxidant action [ 17 ]. In the ambit of Cannabis phenolics, canniprene, which is a dyhydrostilbene unique to C. If compared with cannflavin A, which is the most potent cannflavin, canniprene has been found to be superior at inhibiting 5-LO, but it is less effective for mPGES-1 inhibition [ 19 ]. As regards the other compounds present in C.
Both mono- and sesquiterpenes have been detected in roots and aerial parts of Cannabis and they are mainly produced in secretory glandular hairs [ 2 ]. Several interactions between Cannabis secondary metabolites have been described in the literature [ 2 ]. Many studies have expanded the concept that inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression [ 20 ].
Indeed, several cancers originate from infection, chronic irritation, and inflammation [ 20 ]. Tumour microenvironment, which is largely regulated by inflammatory cells, displays a key role in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival, and migration [ 20 ]. In addition, cancer cells have co-opted some of the signalling molecules of the innate immune system for invasion, migration, and metastasis [ 20 ].
By focusing the attention on hemp nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, CBD has been demonstrated to be useful in the treatment of different inflammatory ailments, including bowel diseases e.
As regards cancer, CBD has exhibited antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities, thus demonstrating modulating the tumorigenesis in different types of cancer, including breast, lung, colon, brain, and others [ 21 ]. In this context, this review is focused on the effects and the molecular mechanisms of CBD and related compounds on inflammation and cancer processes, highlighting also the role of other related nonpsychoactive cannabinoids and noncannabinoids constituents of fibre-type hemp.
Endocannabinoids and their metabolic enzymes and receptors have been identified in monocytes, macrophages, basophils, lymphocytes, and dendritic cells. In these cells their role is to modulate immune function in an autocrine and paracrine way [ 22 ].
CB 2 expression in human B cells increases after the activation by anti-CD40 antibody. However, differentiation of B cells is accompanied by decreased expression of CB 2. CB 2 levels in macrophages undergo changes correlated with cell activation or with inflammation. Indeed, macrophages express higher levels of CB 2 ; so, the functions of macrophages in these states of activation may be the most sensitive to the actions of cannabinoids.
These data suggest a physiological role of the endocannabinoid system in the functions of immune cells with respect to inflammation [ 24 ]. Moreover, a relationship between the endocannabinoid system and toll-like receptors TLR has been reported, with TLR activation enhancing the production of endocannabinoids and cannabinoids suppressing TLR-induced inflammatory response [ 25 ].
The study of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids from C. CBDA has been found to possess a dual inhibitory effect on COX, through downregulation [ 40 ] and enzyme inhibition [ 35 ]. More recently, CBD has been found to significantly reduce cytokines production in an in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis, using HaCaT cells [ 43 ]. Concerning the effect of other C.
As far as peripheral inflammation is concerned, C. Recent investigations have highlighted the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the physiology of the gastrointestinal function and its possible deregulation in gastrointestinal pathology [ 49 ]. The precise mechanisms across tissue departments that are under the regulatory control of the endocannabinoid system have not been fully understood [ 49 ].
Cannabinoids have been found to modulate intestinal permeability in an in vitro model. These data suggest that endocannabinoids may play a role in the modulation of gut permeability and that Cannabis -based medicines may possess therapeutic benefit in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases characterized by abnormal intestinal permeability, such as inflammatory bowel disease IBD and shock [ 50 ].
These findings have been further confirmed in another in vitro model of intestinal inflammation. The effects of cytokines on increased permeability were inhibited by a CB 1 receptor antagonist and a 2-AG synthesis inhibitor and were enhanced by inhibitors of the degradation of AEA or 2-AG, suggesting that local production of endocannabinoids activating CB 1 may play a role in the modulation of gut permeability during inflammation [ 51 ].
CBD anti-inflammatory effects on the acutely inflamed human colon have also been investigated in combination with palmitoylethanolamide PEA in cultured cell lines and this effect was compared with experimentally inflamed explant human colonic tissue [ 52 ].
In particular, Caco-2 cells and human colonic explants collected from elective bowel cancer, inflammatory bowel disease IBD , or acute appendicitis resections were used. These effects extend into chronic inflammatory processes, such as IBD, but also acute inflammatory conditions, such as appendicitis.
Since these two compounds are well tolerated in humans with few side effects, their clinical use in treating IDB can be very useful [ 52 ]. In another study, CBD has been demonstrated to improve Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced damage in Caco-2 cells, by inhibiting the apoptotic process and restoring the intestinal barrier integrity, through the involvement of CB 1 receptors [ 53 ].
Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Clostridium difficile toxin A significantly affects enterocytes permeability leading to apoptosis and colonic mucosal damage. Given the absence of any significant toxic effect in humans, CBD may ideally represent an effective adjuvant treatment for Clostridium difficile -associated colitis [ 53 ].
In addition to the protective role of Cannabis components on the inflamed intestine, an additional positive aspect is their potential role in preventing imbalances of gut microbiota. This aspect not only is relevant for the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders, such as IBD and obesity, but also has implications for the treatment of colorectal cancer CRC. The impact of the endocannabinoid system on gut microbiota is a relatively new and emerging field wherein the interplay between cannabinoids and metabolic syndrome has been the focus so far.
Bacteroidetes ratio typically found in obesity, resulting in weight-loss, indicating that Cannabis may play a role in CRC prevention as well [ 54 ]. Further studies are needed to determine whether CBD has the same effect on gut microbiota with respect to the balance of Firmicutes: Bacteroidetes to evaluate its application in halting the progression of the obese microbiota profile present in CRC, with the hopes of delaying this disease onset [ 54 ].
CB 1 receptors are much more expressed in the brain if compared to CB 2 [ 55 ]. However, CB 2 can be upregulated under neuroinflammatory conditions and as a result of the invasion of peripheral cells expressing CB 2 [ 56 ]. The neuroprotective effect of endocannabinoids involves the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines production.
Cytokines may regulate the normal activity of the endocannabinoid system in different ways: Indeed, these cytokines have pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, depending on a variety of factors. This activity leads to a promotion of stem cells proliferation and migration that might have important implications for brain self-repairing processes [ 60 ].
The cannabinoid system and cytokine network are directly related. Evidences suggest that controlled neuroinflammation is crucial for tissue repair within the brain [ 62 , 63 ]. The inhibition of ATP-induced intracellular calcium increase, together with the inhibition of NO production, has been suggested as a mechanism by which CBD can reduce microglia activation [ 75 ].
In another work, CBD has also inhibited the neurotoxic effects of protease-resistant prion protein PrPres and it has affected PrPres-induced microglial cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner; so, it may protect neurons against the multiple molecular and cellular factors involved in the different steps of the neurodegenerative process, which takes place during prion infection [ 77 ].
More recently, the neuroprotection of fibre-type hemp extracts and CBD was assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and microglial BV-2 cell lines in the presence of rotenone as the toxic agent, also in serum-free conditions [ 78 ].
The decarboxylated hemp extract has shown a mild neuroprotective activity on BV-2 cells treated with rotenone, higher than that of pure CBD [ 78 ]. As regards serum-free experiments, the nondecarboxylated hemp extract was the most effective neuroprotective agent toward SH-SY5Y cells, while BV-2 cells were better protected from the toxic insult by the decarboxylated extract and CBD [ 78 ].
Concerning other cannabinoids, the anti-inflammatory properties of CBG have been described in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation, using NSC motor neurons conditioned with the medium of LPS-stimulated murine macrophages.
CBG treatment in macrophages has prevented neuronal cytotoxicity by reducing inflammation, i. As regards other C. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and it accounts for about 8. Cancer is a multistep disease characterized by a formation of a preneoplastic lesion initiation processes which, by time, progresses into malignant tumor. Under typical conditions with a light period of 12 to 14 hours both sexes are produced in equal numbers because of heritable X and Y chromosomes.
Although the main psychoactive constituent of Cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol THC , the plant is known to contain more than compounds, among them at least cannabinoids ; however, most of these "minor" cannabinoids are only produced in trace amounts.
Synthetic THC, called dronabinol , does not contain cannabidiol CBD , cannabinol CBN , or other cannabinoids, which is one reason why its pharmacological effects may differ significantly from those of natural Cannabis preparations.
Beside cannabinoids, Cannabis chemical constituents include about compounds responsible for its characteristic aroma. These are mainly volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes. Human intervention has produced variation within the species and some authorities only recognize one species in the genus that has had divergent selective pressure to either produce plants with more fiber or plants with greater THC content.
Cannabis strains with relatively high CBD: THC ratios are less likely to induce anxiety than vice versa. Indica plants are normally shorter and stockier than sativas. Cannabis sativa seeds are chiefly used to make hempseed oil which can be used for cooking, lamps, lacquers, or paints. They can also be used as caged-bird feed, as they provide a wonderful source of nutrients for most animals.
The flowers and to a lesser extent the leaves, stems, and seeds contain psychoactive chemical compounds known as cannabinoids that are consumed for recreational, medicinal, and spiritual purposes. When so used, preparations of flowers called marijuana and leaves and preparations derived from resinous extract e. Historically, tinctures , teas , and ointments have also been common preparations. In traditional medicine of India in particular C.
However, recent ethnopharmacology studies have shown that sativa can actually cause sleep disorders and heighten neurological and psychiatric illness. A Cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 12—13 hours of light per day to stay vegetative.
Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours per day [ dubious — discuss ]. The flowering cycle can last anywhere between nine and fifteen weeks, depending on the strain and environmental conditions. In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6. In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5. Tissue culture multiplication has become important in producing medically important clones,  while seed production remains the generally preferred means of multiplication.
Broadly, there are three main cultivar groups of cannabis that are cultivated today:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Drug culture Illegal drug trade Psychedelia. Cannabis and Cannabis cultivation. Industrial and personal uses of Cannabis , Cannabis drug , and Hemp.
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Agronomy and photosynthesis physiology of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
Prog Chem Org Nat Prod. ; doi: /_1. Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L. ElSohly MA(1)(2), Radwan MM(3), Gul. Cannabis sativa (L.) is grown in North America for several centuries and is a good example of a colonizing plant, because cannabis is very well. POISONOUS PLANTS 1. NAME Scientific name Cannabis Sativa L. (var Indica) Family Cannabinaceae Common name(s) Cañamo de la India ( Latin.