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and cannabis in migraine Medicines

pitoco
04.06.2018

Content:

  • and cannabis in migraine Medicines
  • Marijuana and Migraines
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  • Migraine headaches can be tough to treat. If your pain, nausea, and sensitivity to light or noise don't get better with over-the-counter or even prescription drugs. Learn how the use of medical marijuana and other forms of the Marijuana is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Is smoking marijuana—or eating it—a good option for treating about sending patients home with the meds, which were opioids, she says.

    and cannabis in migraine Medicines

    The researchers said their findings were significant, and they believe it could be a jumping off point to move toward states legalizing marijuana to treat migraines. While there are promising results when looking at marijuana and migraines, researchers are quick to point out that there can be negative effects of marijuana as well.

    Even when medical marijuana has benefits, it may also have adverse effects that should be carefully weighed. Summing Up—Marijuana and Migraines So, does marijuana help or cause migraines? Based on research coming out recently it seems that with marijuana and migraines, the drug might actually be able to help, at least somewhat.

    With this being said, the research on marijuana and migraines in its very early stages and most of what we know about it at this point is based on antidotal evidence, but there does seem to be positive information on the horizon.

    Is Marijuana a Gateway Drug? Read the most frequently asked questions See also Marijuana Edibles: Does Marijuana Cause Schizophrenia? Mental Health First Aid. Don't wait another day. Help is a phone call away. What Is a Migraine? People may also experience tingling in their extremities, light and sound sensitivity, nausea and vomiting before or during a migraine.

    Summing Up—Marijuana and Migraines. So, does marijuana help or cause migraines? Have more questions about Marijuana abuse? See also Marijuana Edibles: Can You Overdose on Marijuana? Marijuana and Zoloft Interactions. Speak to a Marijuana Intake Coordination Specialist now.

    Speak with an Intake Coordination Specialist now. Many individuals are currently using cannabis for the treatment of migraine and headache with positive results. In another California survey of patients, 8.

    Other studies have looked specifically at the change in the occurrence of headache disorders with use of cannabis. These results indicate that cannabis may be an effective treatment option for certain migraine sufferers.

    Reports from cluster headache patients 56 indicate that cannabis could have value in treating a portion However, cannabis was reported to provoke cluster headache attacks in some patients One possible explanation for this provoking effect is that cannabis is known to increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, and cause systemic vasodilation.

    Interestingly, cluster headaches appear to show improvement with treatment using hallucinogens such as d-lysergic acid amide ergine or LSA , psilocybin, and lysergic acid diethylamide LSD. Case reports also give insights into the mechanisms behind the anti-headache action of cannabis. Smoking cannabis has been reported to relieve pain associated with pseudotumor cerebri, 57 a condition that is characterized by an increase in the intracranial pressure of an uncertain etiology.

    This suggests that the therapeutic effect of cannabis in some headache conditions could be a result of reducing intracranial pressure.

    In fact, dexanabinol, a synthetic cannabinoid, has been found to relieve intracranial pressure and improve outcomes after traumatic brain injury. The pathophysiological mechanisms of many headache disorders are not entirely understood. Nevertheless, preclinical data examining the effects of endocannabinoids on the neurological and vascular systems demonstrate the influence of endocannabinoids in modulating several major components of migraine pathogenesis Table 3 and Fig.

    Proposed model of the influence of cannabinoids on headache pathogenesis. Each branch corresponds to a mechanistic category listed in Table 3. Various genetic factors can predispose individuals to migraines. For example, studies have shown that a decrease in expression of the cnr1 gene, which encodes the cannabinoid receptor type 1 CB1 receptor, is associated with migraine and trigeminovascular activation. These findings support the proposed theory that alterations in endocannabinoid function with reductions in endocannabinoids such as AEA may be one of the mechanisms underlying migraine.

    A feature of headache disorders is that they are highly associated with other comorbidities, including anxiety and mood disorders, allergies, chronic pain disorders, and epilepsy. One of the first subjective indicators of a migraine is the occurrence of an aura, a perceptual abnormality that often precedes a migraine attack. A wave of electrophysiological hyperactivity followed by inhibition, known as cortical spreading depression CSD , is considered the neurobiological event underlying the migraine aura.

    CSD has been shown to be a result of excessive glutamate signaling, and one effect of endocannabinoids is the suppression of glutamate signaling via the inhibition of NMDA receptors. Another component of most headache disorders is overactivation of the trigeminovascular system, the primary sensory nerve tree for the head.

    One of the most reliable triggers for migraine is NO. Studies have demonstrated the role of endocannabinoids in inhibiting NO. Moreover, vasodilation is not necessarily pathogenic for headaches, and endocannabinoid-induced vasodilation could desensitize the vasculature to known headache progenitors, such as NO.

    The hematological properties within the dilated cranial blood vessels themselves may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of migraine. Endocannabinoid levels are reduced in the platelets of migraine patients, 80 and women with migraine show increased FAAH and EMT activation in their platelets. Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to stabilize platelets and prevent release of serotonin from platelets during a migraine. Endocannabinoids have a well-established role in the modulation of pain signals at the spinal level 81 and contribute to the descending modulation of pain through brainstem nuclei.

    Headache disorders are common, painful, and disabling; moreover, treatment for these disorders is inadequate for many sufferers. Before cannabis was made illegal, many prominent physicians praised its use in the treatment of headache disorders. Reports from this period emphasize the administration of consistent and uniform doses and the titration of doses to minimize intoxication.

    For prophylactic treatment, cannabis was typically given orally two to three times per day, for weeks or even months, 28 , 32 , 36—38 and for abortive treatment, cannabis was given at higher oral doses or smoked. Although there have not been any clinical trials of cannabis as a treatment for headache to date, reports indicate that cannabis is commonly used by patients to self-medicate for headache disorders.

    A retrospective analysis has shown a significant impact of cannabis in treating migraine 47 and a clinical trial of a synthetic cannabinoid showed efficacy for MOH, 53 but properly designed placebo-controlled trials are needed to determine the true efficacy and complications of cannabis treatment for headache disorders. Preclinical studies examining the role of the endocannabinoid system in migraine pathogenesis also suggest a potential therapeutic value for cannabis in the treatment of headache.

    It has been postulated that a general deficiency in endocannabinoid tone could underlie headache disorders. The studies presented in this review indicate the importance of further well-designed clinical trials of the efficacy of cannabis in the treatment of headache disorders.

    Because there are still many obstacles present in constructing double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials of cannabis, the following list outlines various other potential future investigations and recommendations based on the findings presented in this review.

    The present review examines the historical guidelines for cannabis treatment of headache, available clinical data on the use of cannabis for headache, and preclinical literature on the role of the endocannabinoid system in headache pathophysiology. From this examination, various methodological recommendations are made for future studies and potentially novel treatment practices are considered. Although placebo-controlled clinical trials are still needed to appropriately determine efficacy, it appears likely that cannabis will emerge as a potential treatment for some headache sufferers.

    Cite this article as: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Cannabis Cannabinoid Res v. Published online Apr 1. Lochte , Alexander Beletsky , Nebiyou K. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

    This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Headache disorders are common, debilitating, and, in many cases, inadequately managed by existing treatments. Historical Use of Cannabis for Headache Historical reports, though not ideal forms of evidence, are important resources for understanding the potential use of cannabis in the treatment of headache disorders.

    All patients experienced improvement, some were cured. Donovan 41 Migraine A: Usually lasting relief, sometimes curative. Greene 35 ; Russo 18 Clavus hystericus and migraine P: Waring 36 Migraine or sick headache P: Taken before each meal Women: Seguin cited in Russo 18 Migraine or sick headache A: Clinical experience Found to be the most effective drug for migraine.

    Can abort attacks in some cases. Clinical experience Helpful prophylactically and abortively, even in cases of migraine refractory to other treatments. Mackenzie 38 Migraine P: Open in a separate window. A, abortive; P, prophylactic. Clinical Studies on Cannabis Use for Headache The schedule 1 classification of marijuana in has made rigorous clinical studies on the treatment efficacy of this substance difficult.

    Subject population Type of study Significant findings Source 3 Chronic smokers Case series Migraines after cannabis cessation. Remission of headache with return to use in one patient. El-Mallakh 42 Patient with migraine Case report Women found superior relief of migraine with cannabis compared with beta-blockers, opiates, and ergots. Petro cited in Russo 18 Patient with migraine Case report 18 years of treatment failure with standard pharmaceuticals, found success with smoked cannabis.

    Grinspoon and Bakalar 45 Patient with migraine Case report Successful treatment with cannabis that did not produce inebriation. Terwur cited in Russo 18 Patients prescribed cannabis for migraine Retrospective study Migraine occurrences decreased from In one case, cannabis improved response more than dronabinol.

    In three cases, cannabis was used to abort headache in the prodromal phase. Mikuriya 48 Patients seeking physician recommendation for medical cannabis Survey Use as treatment unknown.

    Cannabinoids and Headache Pathophysiology The pathophysiological mechanisms of many headache disorders are not entirely understood. Studies on the Role of Cannabinoids in Headache Pathogenesis. Mechanistic category Significant findings Source Systemic Variants in the cnr1 gene encodes for the CB1 receptor resulting in decreased expression of CB1 associated with migraine and trigeminovascular activation.

    Could desensitize receptor and inhibit pathophysiological mechanism of headache. Underlying cause of headaches Various genetic factors can predispose individuals to migraines. Glutamate signaling One of the first subjective indicators of a migraine is the occurrence of an aura, a perceptual abnormality that often precedes a migraine attack.

    Trigeminovascular activation Another component of most headache disorders is overactivation of the trigeminovascular system, the primary sensory nerve tree for the head. Platelet stabilization The hematological properties within the dilated cranial blood vessels themselves may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of migraine.

    Modulation of afferent nociceptive signals Endocannabinoids have a well-established role in the modulation of pain signals at the spinal level 81 and contribute to the descending modulation of pain through brainstem nuclei. Discussion Headache disorders are common, painful, and disabling; moreover, treatment for these disorders is inadequate for many sufferers. The development of dosing and treatment guidelines for the use of cannabis in the treatment of headache disorders.

    Physicians should consider discussing dosing strategies when recommending cannabis as headache treatment, with the aim of maximizing efficacy and minimizing harm. A focus on dose consistency through the use of oral cannabinoids or metered-dose inhalers could benefit future clinical trials by allowing for easier blinding and placebo control. Moreover, the use of oral cannabinoids could have unique benefits in the prophylactic treatment of headache, because it could avoid concentration peaks and individual differences in bioavailability.

    Investigation of the anti-headache effect of cannabidiol CBD. This review found no available information on the use of CBD as a treatment for headache. Nevertheless, CBD has shown efficacy for headache-related conditions i. Identification of variables that could predict treatment receptivity in headache patients. This could include stratification of headache disorders or patients based on sex, genetics, metabolic function, or neuronal biomarkers.

    Investigation of the long-term risks of cannabis treatment for headaches. This should aim at quantifying any side effects, withdrawal symptoms, dependence, refractory headaches, or negative outcomes from cannabis treatment for headaches.

    Evaluation of other anti-headache drugs that target the endocannabinoid system. Evaluation of cannabis in combination treatment with analgesic or other anti-headache medications or as a second-line treatment in patients who are refractory to traditional medications.

    Conclusion The present review examines the historical guidelines for cannabis treatment of headache, available clinical data on the use of cannabis for headache, and preclinical literature on the role of the endocannabinoid system in headache pathophysiology. Author Disclosure Statement No competing financial interests exist. Burden of migraine in the United States: The global burden of headache: Migraine and tension-type headache in children and adolescents. Epidemiology of headache in a general population—a prevalence study.

    Hansen JM, Levy D. Headache Ashina M, editor; , Geppetti P, editor. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Leone M, Proietti Cecchini A. Advances in the understanding of cluster headache. Munksgaard SB, Porreca F. Pathophysiology of medication overuse headache: Vasoactive peptide release in the extracerebral circulation of humans during migraine headache.

    Headache diagnoses in patients with treated idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Migraine pathophysiology and its clinical implications. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. S92—S [ PubMed ]. Prognosis of migraine and tension-type headache: Jensen R, Bendtsen L.

    Case-based diagnosis and management of headache disorders. Headache Siva A, editor; , Lampl C, editor. Springer International Publishing, , pp. Gunther R, Goodyer J. The Greek herbal of Dioscorides: Encyclopedia of Islam New Edition , vol. The vegetable Materia Medica of Western India. Parkinson J, Cotes T. Or, an Herball of a large extent. On the preparations of the Indian Hemp, or Gunjah: Cannabis indica their effects on the animal system in health, and their utility in the treatment of tetanus and other convulsive diseases.

    Cannabis for migraine treatment: An historical and scientific review. On some of the therapeutical uses of Indian hemp. Headache J Head Face Pain. A manual of diseases of the nervous system American edition.

    The principles and practice of medicine. The endocannabinoid system and migraine. Cannabinoids and hallucinogens for headache. Comprehensive review of medicinal marijuana, cannabinoids, and therapeutic implications in medicine and headache: Alterations of the endocannabinoid system in an animal model of migraine: Cannabis indica in the treatment of migraine. A Handbook of Therapeutics.

    Marijuana and Migraines

    I had received the bear as well as a certificate after my essay about how and why I would never use drugs, particularly marijuana, won a. Although clinical trials of cannabis for neuropathic pain have shown . Clinical experience, Found to be the most effective drug for migraine. Cannabis may be an effective treatment for headache management, Safety, and Tolerability of Cannabis-Based Medicines for Chronic.

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    Comments

    LineAger

    I had received the bear as well as a certificate after my essay about how and why I would never use drugs, particularly marijuana, won a.

    weras

    Although clinical trials of cannabis for neuropathic pain have shown . Clinical experience, Found to be the most effective drug for migraine.

    energi14

    Cannabis may be an effective treatment for headache management, Safety, and Tolerability of Cannabis-Based Medicines for Chronic.

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