Lack of cannabidiol effects on sleep-wake cycle in healthy patients . Techniques And Scoring System For Sleep Stages In Human Subjects .. Effects of acute systemic administration of Cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats .. A randomized, double crossover study to investigate the influence of saline infusion on sleep. Objective: Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the non-psychotomimetic and placebo in healthy volunteers performing a simulated public speaking . aimed to compare the acute effects of three different No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Bl. Show, A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Pilot Study Show, No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy .. of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized Jin LZ, Rangan A, Mehlsen J, Andersen LB, Larsen SC4, Heitmann BL,
Healthy Effects Subjects: No Sleep-Wake of of Cycle A Double-Bl Cannabidiol the Acute on Randomized,
However, the mechanisms involved in CBD-induced antidepressant effects are still poorly understood. Pretreatment with PCPA an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis: None of the treatments induced locomotor effects.
Due to its complex and multifactorial mechanisms, the treatment of depression associated with diabetes represents a clinical challenge. Here, we evaluated the potential antidepressant-like effect of acute or sub-chronic treatment with CBD in diabetic rats using the modified forced swimming test mFST.
Also, to better understand the functionality of the endocannabinoid system in diabetic animals we also evaluated the effect of URB, a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor. Neither body weight nor blood glucose levels were altered by treatments. Considering the importance of the endocannabinoid system to the mechanism of action of many antidepressant drugs, the mild antidepressant-like effect of the sub-chronic treatment with CBD, but not with URB does not invalidate the importance of deepening the studies involving the endocannabinoid system particularly in DBT animals.
Patients reported a significant reduction in pain. Pharmacology of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol via CB 1 receptor-dependent mechanism. Epub Oct Cannabidiol interferes with the effects of delta 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Does Cannabis Composition Matter?
Epub Apr Modulation of auditory and visual processing by deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol: Epub Mar Modulation of mediotemporal and ventrostriatal function in humans by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Analysis of Current Data in the United States.
Epub Jan Curr Drug Abuse Rev. Sub-chronic impact of cannabinoids in street cannabis on cognition, psychotic-like symptoms and psychological well-being. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population--a meta-analysis of 31 studies.
The relationship between cannabis use and measures of anxiety and depression in a sample of college campus cannabis users and non-users post state legalization in Colorado. Is cannabis treatment for anxiety, mood, and related disorders ready for prime time? Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: Cannabis and psychosis revisited.
Isolation and characterization of new Cannabis constituents from a high potency variety. A user's guide to cannabinoid therapies in oncology.
Epub Dec Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine Sativex in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis.
Epub Nov 9. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: Endocannabinoid system and mood disorders: Endocannabinoid system and psychiatry: Epub May Epub Dec 8.
An update on PPAR activation by cannabinoids. GPR55 is a cannabinoid receptor that increases intracellular calcium and inhibits M current. Epub Feb 8. An overview of its potential in current medical practice.
An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. Fear relief-toward a new conceptual frame work and what endocannabinoids gotta do with it. Epub Dec 3. A critical role for prefrontocortical endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of stress and emotional behavior. Cannabinoids reverse the effects of early stress on neurocognitive performance in adulthood.
Cannabinoids and post-traumatic stress disorder: A Review of the Current Literature. Marijuana and other cannabinoids as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: Cannabidiol Regulation of Learned Fear: Implications for Treating Anxiety-Related Disorders.
Cannabinoids ameliorate impairments induced by chronic stress to synaptic plasticity and short-term memory. The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories. Toward a translational approach to targeting the endocannabinoid system in posttraumatic stress disorder: Epub Nov 4.
Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze. Pharmacological characterization of cannabinoids in the elevated plus maze. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Cannabidiol in humans-the quest for therapeutic targets. A systematic review of the effect of cannabidiol on cognitive function: Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? Br J Clin Pharmacol. A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study.
Cannabinoids in health and disease: Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. Endocannabinoids and Metabolic Disorders. Two non-psychoactive cannabinoids reduce intracellular lipid levels and inhibit hepatosteatosis. Epub Aug The endocannabinoid system and plant-derived cannabinoids in diabetes and diabetic complications. Epub Dec 5. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent. Cannabidiol and - Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants.
Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Epub Feb 9. Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects.
Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC and cannabidiol CBD administration in healthy volunteers. Opposite effects of deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol CBD in generalized social anxiety disorder: Epub Sep 9. Effects of cannabidiol CBD on regional cerebral blood flow.
Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Acute effects of deltatetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: Effects of cannabidiol on schizophrenia-like symptoms in people who use cannabis. Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: What we know and do not know about the cannabinoid receptor 2 CB2.
Endocannabinoid control of glutamate NMDA receptors: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Epub Sep 2. Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: The nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent cannabidiol is a wake-inducing agent.
Neurological Aspects of Medical Use of Cannabidiol. Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats. Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats. Effect of Deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral cannabidiol when administered concomitantly with intravenous fentanyl in humans.
Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: Human metabolites of cannabidiol: Induction and genetic regulation of mouse hepatic cytochrome P by cannabidiol. ABC transporters P-gp and Bcrp do not limit the brain uptake of the novel antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drug cannabidiol in mice. Influence of single and repeated cannabidiol administration on emotional behavior and markers of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in non-stressed mice.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: Implications for Schizophrenia Pharmacotherapy. Cannabidiol attenuates sensorimotor gating disruption and molecular changes induced by chronic antagonism of NMDA receptors in mice. Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances.
Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Cannabinoid Ligands and Alcohol Addiction: A Promising Therapeutic Tool or a Humbug? Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: Epub Apr 1.
Cannabidiol reduces ethanol consumption, motivation and relapse in mice. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. Acute and chronic administration of cannabidiol increases mitochondrial complex and creatine kinase activity in the rat brain.
Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers. Braz J Med Biol Res. Effects of cannabidiol treatment on cortisol response to social stress in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis. Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy. Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.
S Antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol. Cannabis und Cannabinoide in der Medizin: Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease: Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease.
Results of a Phase II Study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. A critical review of the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol: Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS. Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis CAMS study: The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms.
An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. History of cannabis as a medicine: Endocannabinoid system and stress and anxiety responses. Role of endocannabinoid signaling in anxiety and depression. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. Role in depression, reward and pain control Review. Epub Aug 1. The role of fatty acids and their endocannabinoid-like derivatives in the molecular regulation of appetite.
Fatty Acid modulation of the endocannabinoid system and the effect on food intake and metabolism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and endocannabinoids in health and disease. Peripheral and central CB1 cannabinoid receptors control stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation.
Learning and memory is modulated by cannabidiol when administered during trace fear-conditioning. Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant - do they exist? Nutritional omega-3 deficiency abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated neuronal functions. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: Cannabis and Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain.
Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Adverse health effects of marijuana use. N Engl J Med. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: Sleep disturbance in heavy marijuana users. Effects of marijuana extract and tetrahydrocannabinol on electroencephalographic sleep patterns.
An Evidence Review and Research Agenda. Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease patients: J Clin Pharm Ther. Is there a role for cannabidiol in psychiatry? World J Biol Psychiatry.
Exercise activates the endocannabinoid system. Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is essential for stress adaptation. Epub May 3. Stress response recruits the hippocampal endocannabinoid system for the modulation of fear memory. Brain cannabinoids in chocolate. Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates intestinal pain and induces opioid and cannabinoid receptors.
Tea catechins' affinity for human cannabinoid receptors. Epub Nov 7. Metabolomic response to coffee consumption: Caffeine drinking potentiates cannabinoid transmission in the striatum: Epub Nov 8. Endocannabinoids control spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model. Cultured rat microglial cells synthesize the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol, which increases proliferation via a CB2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Translational evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in stress-related psychiatric illnesses.
Biol Mood Anxiety Disord. The endocannabinoid system as a target for addiction treatment: The Endocannabinoid System and Anxiety.
Epub Nov 2. Epigenetic mechanisms and endocannabinoid signalling. Endocannabinoids in appetite control and the treatment of obesity. The endocannabinoid system and energy metabolism. Cannabinoid receptor 2 is critical for the homing and retention of marginal zone B lineage cells and for efficient T-independent immune responses. The neurobiology and evolution of cannabinoid signalling. Anandamide and vanilloid TRPV1 receptors.
Anandamide modulates sleep and memory in rats. Is lipid signaling through cannabinoid 2 receptors part of a protective system? Both interventions were applied over the triceps brachii on the affected arm for a duration of 60 minutes. Spasticity was measured using the MAS. Secondary outcome measures were self-reported change in spasticity, measured on a visual analog scale VAS, , and therapist-rated strength of elbow extension and strength of elbow flexion.
Measurements were taken immediately before each intervention was applied, immediately after the intervention, and one hour after the intervention. This study demonstrates the feasibility and practicality of applying the new concept of SBS.
Promising results indicate it causes a reduction in spasticity. Effects of antiseptic mouthwash on resting metabolic rate: A randomized, double-blind , crossover study. The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide NO bioactivity.
Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate RMR. Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion.
Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function.
Here we tested if also RMR would be affected by an antiseptic mouthwash. During two 3-day periods separated by 28 days the subjects consumed a diet low in nitrate combined with rinsing their mouth three times daily with a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash mouthwash or placebo mouthwash placebo with similar taste but no antiseptic properties. Treatment with chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash effectively reduced oral conversion of nitrate to nitrite but had no effect on plasma levels of these anions or plasma cGMP.
We conclude that in young healthy females an antiseptic mouthwash was effective in disrupting oral bacterial nitrate conversion to nitrite, but this was not associated with changes in plasma nitrite, RMR or blood pressure.
Metabolic and hormonal effects of caffeine: In short-term studies, caffeine has been shown to increase insulin levels, reduce insulin sensitivity, and increase cortisol levels.
However, epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term consumption of beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a paucity of randomized studies addressing the metabolic and hormonal effects of consuming caffeine over periods of more than 1 day. We evaluated the effect of oral intake of mg of caffeine taken twice a day for 7 days on glucose metabolism, as well as on serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA , and androstenedione, and on nighttime salivary melatonin.
A double-blind , randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 7 days and washouts of 5 days comparing caffeine with placebo capsules was conducted. Participants were 16 healthy adults aged 18 to 22 years with a history of caffeine consumption. Blood samples from each subject were assayed for glucose, insulin, serum cortisol, DHEA, and androstenedione on the eighth day of each period after an overnight fast.
Nighttime salivary melatonin was also measured. Insulin levels were significantly higher by 1. There were no differences in glucose, DHEA, androstenedione, and melatonin between treatment periods. This study provides evidence that daily caffeine intake reduces insulin sensitivity; the effect persists for at least a week and is evident up to 12 hours after administration.
Minocycline versus co-trimoxazole in chancroid: A double-blind randomised study. Full Text Available This double-blind randomised parallel-group study comparing the efficacy and side effects of minocycline with that of cotrimoxazole in chancroid, had 56 analysable cases, 28 in each group. All admissible cases were assessed clinically on a scale of 0 to 3 for number and size of ulcers, pain, discharge, surrounding erythema and bubo.
Each drug individually showed significant improvement in all clinical parameters. Minocycline showed significantly better improvement than cotrimoxazole in all parameters. Both the drug were well tolerated. We conclude that minocycline is a superior alternative to cotrimoxazole in the therapy of chancroid.
Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy: Objectives To assess if continuous topical glyceryl trinitrate GTN treatment improves outcome in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy when compared with eccentric training alone. Methods Randomised double-blind , placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing a week programme of using a GTN. Penicillin for acute sore throat: Objective To assess whether treatment with penicillin for three days and the traditional treatment for seven days were equally as effective at accelerating resolution of symptoms in patients with sore throat compared with placebo.
Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Language-specific strategy for programming hearing aids - A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study. Voice-aligned compression VAC is a method used in Oticon's hearing aids to provide more comfortable hearing without sacrificing speech discrimination. The complex, non-linear compression curve for the VAC strategy is designed based on the frequency profile of certain spoken Western languages.
We hypothesized that hearing aids could be further customized for Japanese-speaking users by modifying the compression curve using the frequency profile of spoken Japanese. A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study was performed to determine whether or not Oticon's modified amplification strategy VAC-J provides subjectively preferable hearing aids for Japanese-speaking hearing aid users compared to the same company's original amplification strategy VAC.
The participants were randomized to two groups. The VAC-first group received a pair of hearing aids programmed using the VAC strategy and wore them for three weeks, and then received a pair of hearing aids programmed using VAC-J strategy and wore them for three weeks.
The VAC-J-first group underwent the same study, but they received hearing aids in the reverse sequence. A Speech, Spatial and Qualities SSQ questionnaire was administered before beginning to use the hearing aids, at the end of using the first pair of hearing aids, and at the end of using the second pair of hearing aids.
Twenty-two participants completed the study. However, participants preferred the VAC-J strategy to the VAC strategy at the end of the study, and this difference was statistically significant. Japanese-speaking hearing aid users preferred using hearing aids that were fitted with the VAC-J strategy.
Our results show that the VAC strategy. A randomized, double-blind , placebo-controlled crossover study of Erectile dysfunction ED is one of the major health concerns affects the quality of life among Thai male. The treatment of ED by the first-line drugs is limited to a certain group of patients due to their side effects and costs.
Alternative medicine can be beneficial for the treatment of ED. This is a randomized, double-blind , Heartburn treatment in primary care: Objective To compare the effects and tolerability of omeprazole and cisapride with that of placebo for control of heartburn in primary care patients.
Design Randomised , double blind , placebo controlled study. Setting 65 primary care practices in Norway. Interventions Omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cisapride 20 mg twice daily, or placebo for 8 weeks. Key messagesIn primary care patients, heartburn is commonly treated empiricallyMost randomised clinical trials of treatment for heartburn have been conducted in specialist care, and documentation for empirical treatment is limitedOmeprazole was significantly more effective than cisapride or placebo in controlling heartburn and other symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux after 2, 4, and 8 weeks, whereas cisapride did not differ significantly from placeboOmeprazole should be considered as a first choice for empirical treatment of heartburn in primary care PMID: The problem encountered with episiotomy is pain, which is maximum during first 24 hours and may be severe enough to disturb the puerperium.
This study aims to compare analgesic efficacy of analgesics, ropivacaine and lidocaine for perineal infiltration during episiotomy. Ropivacaine group did not require systemic analgesics for 24 hours, but lidocaine group required systemic analgesics after 4 hours of suturing.
Both groups Ropivacaine and Lidocaine did not have any adverse effects. Total hip arthroplasty and perioperative oral carbohydrate treatment: Perioperative oral carbohydrate intake is beneficial to general surgery patients. Total hip arthroplasty is a common surgical procedure, and even a moderate improvement in patient outcome could have a significant effect on the resources needed for these patients.
However, few studies have focused on the effects of carbohydrate intake on orthopaedic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate if perioperative oral carbohydrate intake alters the postoperative course for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.
The primary hypothesis was that pain scores would be lower in patients treated with carbohydrate. A randomised , double-blind , controlled trial. This study was carried out between September and April at a district Swedish hospital that specialises in orthopaedic surgery.
Exclusion criteria were obesity, diabetes, prior hip surgery to the same hip, ongoing infection, immunological deficiency or age less than 50 or more than 80 years. Patients were given ml of either an oral Visual analogue scales were used to score six discomfort parameters. Immediately prior to surgery, the carbohydrate-treated patients were less hungry median score 9. Full Text Available Objective. To identify whether a standardised Echinacea formulation is effective in the prevention of respiratory and other symptoms associated with long-haul flights.
Participants took Echinacea root extract, standardised to 4. Participants were surveyed before, immediately after travel, and at 4 weeks after travel regarding upper respiratory symptoms and travel-related quality of life.
Efficacy and safety of benfotiamine in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Double blind , placebo-controlled, phase-III-study. The improvement was more pronounced at the higher benfotiamine dose and increased with treatment duration. In the TSS, best results were obtained for the symptom "pain". Treatment was well tolerated in all groups. Benfotiamine may extend the treatment option for patients with diabetic polyneuropathy based on causal influence on impaired glucose metabolism.
Further studies should confirm the positive experiences. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage with sublingual misoprostol or oxytocin: Sublingual misoprostol produces a rapid peak concentration, and is more effective than oral administration.
Double-blind randomised controlled trial. A cohort of consenting eligible pregnant women admitted to the labour room. Subjects were assigned to receive the study medications and placebos within 1 minute of clamping and cutting the cord by computer-generated randomisation. Chi-square and bootstrapped Student's t-tests were used to test categorical and continuous outcomes, respectively. The incidence of PPH was 3.
We observed that 9. Side effects were significantly greater in the misoprostol group than in the oxytocin group. Unlike other studies, this trial found sublingual misoprostol more effective than intramuscular oxytocin in reducing PPH, with only transient side effects being greater in the misoprostol group.
Further research is needed to confirm these results. A double blind , randomised , parallel group study on the efficacy and safety of treating acute lateral ankle sprain with oral hydrolytic enzymes. To compare the effectiveness and safety of the triple combination Phlogenzym rutoside, bromelain, and trypsin with double combinations, the single substances, and placebo. Multinational, multicentre, double blind , randomised , parallel group design with eight groups structured.
Caffeine improves endurance in year old citizens. A randomized, double-blind , placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The randomized, double-blind , placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted in 15 men and 15 women recruited by their general practitioner. Participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h Cardiovascular benefits from ancient grain bread consumption: Ancient grain varieties have been shown to have some beneficial effects on health. Forty-five clinically healthy subjects were included in a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial aimed at evaluating the effect of a replacement diet with bread derived from ancient grain varieties versus modern grain variety on cardiovascular risk profile.
After 8 weeks of intervention, consumption of bread obtained by the ancient varieties showed a significant amelioration of various cardiovascular parameters. Indeed, the ancient varieties were shown to result in a significant reduction of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein LDL -cholesterol and blood glucose, whereas no significant differences during the phase with the modern variety were reported.
Moreover, a significant increase in circulating endothelial progenitor cells were reported after the consumption of products made from the ancient "Verna" variety. The present results suggest that a dietary consumption of bread obtained from ancient grain varieties was effective in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. A pilot study was conducted on 22 children 19 boys and three girls aged between four and eight years, who were selected as hyperactive on the basis of developmental history and clinical judgement.
Conners' parent-teacher ratings, objective tests of attention, standard perceptualmotor tests and subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC , were used as response variables. The children were tested before and after four weeks on the elimination diet, after a tartrazine and placebo challenge, and, finally, after a four-week washout period on the diet.
Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the mothers' ratings of the children's behaviour after the first four weeks of the diet. The improvement was maintained in a combined analysis of the initial four-week diet period and four-week washout period. This result was not substantiated by the statistical analysis of the results from objective tests. The rating scales and objective tests for the full sample did not show a statistically significant deterioration in the children's behaviour when they were challenged under double-blind test conditions with the Yellow Dye No.
Dietary infringements with suspected trigger substances occurred throughout the trial. Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind , randomised controlled trial. Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects.
This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. They played twenty minute games during two sessions against a chess program Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength and completed several neuropsychological tests. Marked substance effects were observed since all three substances significantly increased average reflection time per game compared to placebo resulting in a significantly increased number of games lost on time with all three treatments.
Only when controlling for game duration as well as when excluding those games lost on time, both modafinil and methylphenidate enhanced chess performance as demonstrated by significantly higher scores in the remaining games compared to placebo. In conjunction with results from neuropsychological testing we conclude that modifying effects of stimulants on complex cognitive tasks may in particular result from more reflective decision making processes.
When not under time pressure, such effects may result in enhanced performance. Yet, under time constraints more reflective decision making may not improve or even have detrimental effects on complex task performance.
Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma. Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting beta 2 agonist use and improve quality of life QoL in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non-specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid ICS dose.
This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos.
During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or The QoL score remained unchanged 0.
Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non-specific upper body exercises. Flurbiprofen microgranules for relief of sore throat: Background Many people with sore throat seek, and are often inappropriately prescribed, antibiotics.
Aim The objective of this study was to determine the analgesic efficacy of flurbiprofen 8. These microgranules are a possible alternative treatment for patients with sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection URTI.
Design and setting Randomised , double-blind , placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study conducted at eight primary care sites in Australia. Method Participants with sore throat of onset within the past 4 days received either flurbiprofen 8. Throat soreness, difficulty in swallowing, sore throat pain intensity, sore throat relief, oral temperature, and treatment benefits were all assessed at regular intervals.
Result Of patients from eight centres, received flurbiprofen 8. Throat soreness was significantly reduced over the first 2 hours after the first dose. Reductions in difficulty in swallowing were observed at all time points from 5 to minutes after the first dose, after taking flurbiprofen microgranules versus placebo. Sore throat relief was also evident at 1 minute and lasted for at least 6 hours.
The multiple-dose efficacy results showed reduction of difficulty in swallowing at the end of days 1—3 and sore throat relief at the end of day 1. Conclusion Microgranules containing flurbiprofen 8. Results Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or Efficacy of physiotherapy management of knee joint osteoarthritis: To determine whether a multimodal physiotherapy programme including taping, exercises, and massage is effective for knee osteoarthritis, and if benefits can be maintained with self management.
Randomised , double blind , placebo controlled trial; community volunteers with knee osteoarthritis participated and completed the trial. Physiotherapy and placebo interventions were applied by 10 physiotherapists in private practices for 12 weeks.
Physiotherapy included exercise, massage, taping, and mobilisation, followed by 12 weeks of self management. Placebo was sham ultrasound and light application of a non-therapeutic gel, followed by no treatment.
Primary outcomes were pain measured by visual analogue scale and patient global change. Using an intention to treat analysis, physiotherapy and placebo groups showed similar pain reductions at 12 weeks: At 24 weeks, pain remained reduced from baseline in both groups: The physiotherapy programme tested in this trial was no more effective than regular contact with a therapist at reducing pain and disability.
Postoperative symbiotic in patients with head and neck cancer: Studies on the 'gut origin of sepsis' have suggested that stressful insults, such as surgery, can affect intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation. Symbiotics have been reported to be able to improve gut permeability and modulate the immunologic system, thereby decreasing postoperative complications.
Therefore we aimed to evaluate the postoperative use of symbiotics in head and neck cancer surgical patients for intestinal function and permeability, as well as the postoperative outcomes. Patients were double-blind randomised into the symbiotic n 18 or the control group n Intestinal function day of first evacuation, total stool episodes, stool consistency, gastrointestinal tract symptoms and gut permeability by diamine oxidase DAO enzyme and postoperative complications infectious and non-infectious were assessed.
Results of comparison of the pre- and postoperative periods showed that the groups were similar for all outcome variables. In all, twelve patients had complications in the symbiotic group v. In conclusion, postoperative symbiotics did not impact on intestinal function and postoperative outcomes of head and neck surgical patients.
Venlafaxine versus clonidine for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer patients: Buijs, Ciska; Mom, Constantijne H.
Machteld; de Jong, Robert S. Purpose Breast cancer patients with treatment-induced menopause experience frequent and severe hot flashes HF. We compared venlafaxine and clonidine for the treatment of HF with regard to side effects, efficacy, quality of life and sexual functioning. Methods In a double-blind , cross-over study,. Gabapentin in traumatic nerve injury pain: A randomized, double-blind , placebo-controlled, cross-over , multi-center study.
The study comprised a run Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments.
Chinese women aged years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study.
Two patients withdrew after randomisation. A double-blind , double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale NRS. Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles.
Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment.
Acupuncture point injection of vitamin K3 relieves menstrual pain rapidly and is a useful treatment in an urban outpatient clinic. Double blind , randomised study of continuous terbinafine compared with intermittent itraconazole in treatment of toenail onychomycosis.
Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of continuous terbinafine with intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. Design Prospective, randomised , double blind , double dummy, multicentre, parallel group study lasting 72 weeks. Setting 35 centres in six European countries. Subjects patients aged 18 to 75 years with a clinical and mycological diagnosis of dermatophyte onychomycosis of the toenail.
Main outcome measures Assessment of primary efficacy at week 72 was mycological cure, defined as negative results on microscopy and culture of samples from the target toenail. Results At week 72 the mycological cure rates were There were no differences in the number or type of adverse events recorded in the terbinafine or itraconazole groups. Conclusion Continuous terbinafine is significantly more effective than intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of patients with toenail onychomycosis.
Key messagesGiven a correct diagnosis, fungal nail disease onychomycosis is curableTerbinafine is an allylamine antifungal with a primarily fungicidal mode of actionContinuous terbinafine treatment over 12 or 16 weeks achieves higher rates of clinical and mycological cure than intermittent itraconazole given over the same periodsTerbinafine is safe and well tolerated over 12 or 16 weeks of continuous treatmentContinuous terbinafine should be the current treatment of choice for onychomycosis PMID.
Progesterone administration has been shown to reduce the risk of preterm birth and neonatal morbidity in women at high risk, but there is uncertainty about longer term effects on the child.
The objective of the study was to determine whether vaginal progesterone prophylaxis given to reduce the risk of preterm birth affects neonatal and childhood outcomes. We defined three primary outcomes: Randomisation was done through a web portal, with participants, investigators, and others involved in giving the intervention, assessing outcomes, or analysing data masked to treatment allocation until the end of the study.
Analysis was by intention to treat. In the placebo group, data from , , and women or babies were available for analysis of obstetric, neonatal, and childhood outcomes, respectively; in the progesterone group the corresponding numbers were , , and After correction for multiple outcomes.
MRI-related static magnetic stray fields and postural body sway: We assessed postural body sway performance after exposure to movement induced time-varying magnetic fields in the static magnetic stray field in front of a 7 Tesla T magnetic resonance imaging scanner.
Using a double blind randomized crossover design, 30 healthy volunteers performed two balance tasks i. Personal exposure to static magnetic stray fields and time-varying magnetic fields was measured with a personal dosimeter. Postural body sway was expressed in sway path, area, and velocity.
Mixed-effects model regression analysis showed that postural body sway in the parallel task was negatively affected P Memantine for prophylaxis of chronic tension-type headache--a double-blind , randomized, crossover clinical trial. Treatment for chronic tension-type headache CTTH is unsatisfactory. We included 40 patients in a randomized, double-blind , placebo-controlled, crossover trial Headache intensity in both sexes was significantly lower on a verbal rating scale with memantine 3.
The most common side The use of intranasal oxytocin OT in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo.
This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations.
The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration 'wait-time' prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups.
Full Text Available The use of intranasal oxytocin OT in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Efficacy and safety of creatine supplementation in juvenile dermatomyositis: A randomized, double-blind , placebo-controlled crossover trial. It has been suggested that creatine supplementation is safe and effective for treating idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but no pediatric study has been conducted to date. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of creatine supplementation in juvenile dermatomyositis JDM patients.
In this study, JDM patients received placebo or creatine supplementation 0. Subjects were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. The primary outcome was muscle function. Secondary outcomes included body composition, aerobic conditioning, health-related quality of life, and muscle phosphocreatine PCr content. Safety was assessed by laboratory parameters and kidney function measurements. Creatine supplementation did not affect muscle function, intramuscular PCr content, or any other secondary outcome.
Kidney function was not affected, and no side effects were reported. Twelve weeks of creatine supplementation in JDM patients were well-tolerated and free of adverse effects, but treatment did not affect muscle function, intramuscular PCr, or any other parameter.
Full Text Available Background. SuperUlam is a proprietary blend of natural ingredients aimed at supporting brain health. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SuperUlam on attention and mood in healthy adults. Twenty healthy individuals aged 35—65 were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind , placebo-controlled, crossover study. Study duration was 3 weeks and consisted of 3 visits. Measurement of cognitive function included computer-based testing of reaction time, complex attention, working memory, sustained attention, and executive functioning.
Cognitive function testing demonstrated a significant improvement from baseline in executive functioning, cognitive flexibility, reaction time, and working memory in the product group only P Effects of SuperUlam on Supporting Concentration and Mood: Twenty healthy individuals aged were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind , placebo-controlled, crossover study.
Cognitive function testing demonstrated a significant improvement from baseline in executive functioning, cognitive flexibility, reaction time, and working memory in the product group only P Efficacy and hypnotic effects of melatonin in shift-work nurses: Full Text Available Abstract Background Night work is associated with disturbed sleep and wakefulness, particularly in relation to the night shift.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are characterized by complaints of insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness that are primarily due to alterations in the internal circadian timing system or a misalignment between the timing of sleep and the h social and physical environment.
Methods We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 5 mg melatonin taken 30 minutes before night time sleep on insomnia parameters as well as subjective sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and duration of sleep. A double-blind , randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 1 night and washouts of 4 days comparing melatonin with placebo tablets was conducted.
We tried to improve night-time sleep during recovery from night work. Participants were 86 shift-worker nurses aged 24 to 46 years. Each participant completed a questionnaire immediately after awakening. Results Sleep onset latency was significantly reduced while subjects were taking melatonin as compared with both placebo and baseline.
There was no evidence that melatonin altered total sleep time as compared with baseline total sleep time. No adverse effects of melatonin were noted during the treatment period. Conclusion Melatonin may be an effective treatment for shift workers with difficulty falling asleep. Full Text Available Orange pomace OP, a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.
Lunch was consumed after the 5. Published and not fully published double-blind , randomised , controlled trials with oral naratriptan in the treatment of migraine. This should increase the interest in drug.
Cannabis: CBD (Oil) And THC For Health?! The Scientific Verdict (2019)
In healthy volunteers, THC has marked acute behavioural and physiological effects, .. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy .. the lipopolysaccharide-induced rise in serum tumor necrosis factor in C57/BL mice. No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, . at PT relative to BL, and exhibited improvements in attentional switching, verbal learning, and memory. While no causal proof yet exists for CBD's effects at these targets, they A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of . Sleep deprivation increases A1 adenosine receptor binding in the human of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats.